Brief Persian History or Persian Literature

General Description

Persian history is one of the a lot of age-old histories of the world. It produced a amount of the classical and avant-garde poet, who formed day and night for its survival. Persian formally has announced in Iran, Afghanistan (Dari) and Tajikistan. Therefore, added than 110 actor Persian speaking bodies in the world.

The Agent Persian Language

The Persian accent is one of the sweetest accent in the world. It was an Indo-European argot with abutting affinity with the oldest accent Sanskrit and Avestan ( the accent acclimated in angelic books of Zoroastrian’s). The accent developed in Pars afterwards the abatement of Achaemenian’s government. This accent consistently acclimated there from Pahlavi era to Sassanian era. The books and added abstract of this era are actual rare, however, Ferdowsi (a acclaimed Persian poet) explained it in a bigger way in his book (Shah Namaeh-e-Ferdowsi).

Influence of Arabic Language

Arab conquests accept baffled Pars and surroundings. They started rehabilitation in the breadth for the abundance of the public. Therefore, the Arabic accent declared as the official language. They started their religious and bookish apprenticeship in the Arabic language. However, Pahlavi accent was announced in clandestine life. The Arab conquests disqualified over Pars for a aeon and a half. In this way, a ample amount of Arabic words emerged in Pahlavi and a new accent came into getting which is alleged Persian.

After abatement of Arab rulers, Arabic connected in Iran at baby calibration because the added basic acquirements accent Latin was acclimated in Europe. In this way, the Arabic gradually decreased. Despite the facts that acclaimed religious advisers and Muslim scientists Abu Ali Sina (Avicenna), Al-Beroni, Rhazes, Al Ghazali and abounding added were aswell application Arabic. Persian accent developed rapidly and become the car of literature. Moreover, it advance appear the adjoining countries. Persian poets formed a lot for its advance and the cardinal chic of sub-continent takes agog absorption in Persian poetry. Mughal emperor Akbar accept Persian as an official language.

Interest of Poets in Advance of Persian Language

Persian advisers took the agog absorption in announcement of Persian accent and accomplish it simple for readers. Moreover, Persian poets accept aswell played a basic role in its promotion. Abu Abdullah Jaffar ibn-e-Muhammad Roudaki (born in 858 CE in Panjakent, Tajikistan and died in 941 CE) and Abu Mansoor Muhammad ibn-e -Ahmed Daqiqi Tusi (born in Tus, Iran) are the a lot of arresting Persian poets. Roudaki is about accepted as the aboriginal Persian poet.

The Ghaznavid and aboriginal Seljuq Periods

Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi was a adventurous Muslim king, who loves with advisers and eminent personalities. At about four hundred poets and eminent bodies were absorbed with his appointment (DURBAR). The a lot of notable artist of his admiral was Ansari (born in 961 at Balkh) Ferdowsi (born in 940 in a apple Paj, abreast the city-limits of Tus, Khurasan and died in 1020). Ferdowsi wrote Shahnamah in 25 years which accommodate complete Persian history. However, Farrukhi, Manouchehri and Asadi were aswell acclaimed poets of Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi. Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi served his nation in the acreage of education. He accustomed a lot of libraries in anniversary and every bend of his kingdom. Al Biruni was the a lot of accepted book biographer of Ghaznavid era, who wrote “Chronology of Age-old Nations” in Arabic.

Saljuqi Era

Saljuq era is the additional classical aeon of Persian literature. It was the aureate age of Persian book and balladry in Persian history. Kemiya-e-Saadat (The Alchemy of Happiness) accounting by Imam Ghazali is one the a lot of accepted book of this era. Some of the acclaimed books are as under:-

Siasat Nama. The book has been accounting by Nizam ul Mulk, who was a abbot of Alp Arsalan and Malik Shah. It accommodate complete art of government and band-aid of political problems.

Qabus Nama. Baheeqi has explained the history of Ghaznavid era in this book.

Chahar Maqala. Nizami wrote Chahar Maqala agency four discourses.

Kalila wa Dimna. Nasar Ullah has accounting this book. It accommodate the beastly fables of Indian origin.

• Nasir-e-Khosrow.

Classical Persian Poets

Abu Moeen Hamid Uddin ibn Khosrow al-Qubadiani or Nasir-e-Khosrow (born in 1004 in apple Qubadiyon, Bactria, Khorasan and died in 1088 at Yamgan, Afghanistan) was addition ablaze biographer of classical Persian history, who wrote added than fifteen books. However, beneath than bisected of these books accept survived and accessible now. One of his acclaimed book is Safar Nama, which contains the history of adventure appear Egypt. He was an Ismaili Shia camp scholar, adventurer and philosopher. His balladry and book are acclaimed for abstention of accent and admirable of abstruse skill. The balladry of Nasir are diffuse odes. Nasir wrote balladry on religious and ethical topics.

Famous academic Mirza Muhammad Qazvini says that name of Nasir Khosrow may aswell added in the annual of top Persian poets i.e. Ferdowsi, Omar Khayyam, Anwari, Romi, Sheikh Saadi and Hafiz Sheerazi. Some of the added a lot of arresting Persian poets are Ansari, Abu Said, Khawaqani, Nizami, Attar and Baba Tahir Uryian.

Poet of Force Theory

Omar Khayyam (Ghayas Uddin Abul Fateh Omer Ibrahim Khayyam Nishapuri) was built-in in 18 May 1048 at Nishapur, Khorasan and died in 4 December 1131. He was a abundant scholar, mathematician, astronomer and poet. Khayyam has aboveboard criticized religious affairs and personalities in his poetry. He has consistently referred and hailed himself as a abundant Sufi. The basic affair of his balladry is amusement brave with a affable sadness, the ability of afterlife and ultimate benightedness / blindness of animal beings. Therefore, his balladry was abundantly alone in Iran till the end of nineteenth aeon on this account. However, Iranian accomplished the accent of Khayyam’s balladry if Fitzgerald translated it in the west.

Attached Classical Poets

Sanai is addition abundant artist of classical Persian history who adopted the appearance of Nasir-e-Khosrow. Muaizi, Anwari and Khaqani are the added brilliant poets of classical Persian history. They accept accounting abundant books in Persian language. A lot of of their balladry accommodate on panegyric. The appearance of Anwari is analogously difficult from all added the poets of aforementioned era. However, Khaqani is added mannered, who admired by all. He acclimated abstruse accent with abundant accomplishment in his poetry. All these poets were accepted in Iran but beneath accepted in the west due to their abstruse language.

Nizami (Jamal Uddin Abu Muhammad Ilyas ibn Yousaf ibn Zaki) is addition ablaze brilliant and Sunni artist in classical Persian history. He was built-in in 1140 at Ganja, Caucasus and died in 1209. He was a artistic artist and accepted as specialist of Khamsah or Quintet (series of 5 adventurous poetry). Nizami wrote a mystical ballsy “Makhzan ul Asrar” or Treasure House of Secrets, adventurous balladry “Khosro-o-Shireen” and Laila-o-Majnoon, adventure of abundant Alexander “Sikandar Namah” and Haft Paikar which accommodate the history of Bahram Gur. These books are actual accepted in Iran because of its romantic, colourful and aboriginal autograph style.

Abu Hamid bin Abu Bakar Ibrahim alias Farid Uddin Attar (born in 1145 in Nishapur and died in 1220 Khorasan). He was a abundant Sufi, religious and academic artist in classical Persian history. Historians are on the assessment that he was built-in apparently in 1136 (not conform). Manteq-ut-Tair is one of his a lot of accepted book. Fitzgerald translated this book as “The Bird Parliament”. Attar has explained the adventure of birds symbolically for abutment of animal beings with God in a abundant fun. He gave an archetype of Semorgh (bird) in his book, who ambition to accomplish their king.

Persian History in Thirteenth Century

Ashraf Uddin Mosleh Uddin Saadi accepted as Sheikh Saadi and Maulana Jalal Uddin Romi were the a lot of accepted Sunni Sufi poets of thirteen aeon in Persian history. Sheikh Saadi was built-in in Shiraz boondocks of Iran. His exact date of bearing is not known, however, the avant-garde history writers of Iran says that Saadi was built-in in 1184 AD and died in amid 691 to 694 AH. The historian says that Sheikh Saadi has spent his activity in four parts. Sheikh Saadi advised for 30 years, again he travelled the apple for 30 years, again he spent 30 years in autograph of books and balladry and the actual activity was spent in anchoress and theosophy.

Jalal uddin Rumi

Jalal Uddin Muhammad Rumi accepted as Maulan Rumi was built-in on 30 September 1207 in Balkh (presently a arctic arena of Afghanistan) and died on 17 December 1273. He belongs to an Arab clan, who were accepted for their religious services. “MASNAVI MAANAVI” was his acclaimed book which was completed in ten years. He accepted Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Greek languages.

Hameed Ullah Mostofi was aswell a acclaimed columnist of Persian history. He wrote history and geography. “Zafar Namah” or Book of Victory is his acclaimed book which comprises of 75,000 couplets. Nasir Uddin Tusi is aswell a acclaimed Persian artist who wrote on aesthetics and logic. The added three accepted poets of thirteenth aeon are Iraqi who wrote a mystical and airy book “LAMAAT” or Flashes.

Abdul Hassan Yamin Uddin Khosrow alias Ameer Khosrow was built-in in 1253 at Patiyali Sultanate Dehli, anon Uterpardesh India and died October 1325 in Delhi India. Khosrow wrote in Persian, Arabic and Hindi languages. He was acclaimed for his candied accent and aswell alleged as “The parrot of India”. At endure a carper artist Zakani is aswell the a lot of favourite artist of thirteenth century.

The Fifteenth Aeon onwards

Fifteenth aeon of Persian history is affluent in accouterment of notable historians and poets. Nizam Uddin Shami the columnist of Zafar Namah (a history of Taimur), Yazdi, Hafiz Abru, Khafi, Dawlat Shah and Mir Khand (author of Rauzat-us-Safa or Garden of Purity) Dawani (author of Akhlaq-e-Jalali), Kashafi (author of Kalila wa Dimna aswell accepted as Anwar-e-Subaili or the Lights of Canopus). The arresting poets of fifteenth aeon are Sufi Maghribi, Qasim-e-Anwar, Katibi, Nemat Ullah Wali and Jami.

Noor Uddin Abdul Rahman Jami is admired as endure eminent amount of classical Persian abstract in Persian history. He was built-in in 1414 at Nishapur, Khorasan and died on 19 November 1492 in Herat, Afghanistan. Jami wrote added than forty 5 adored books. Some of his acclaimed books are “Baharistan”, “Yousaf-wa-Zulaikha”, “Suleman-wa-Absal”, “Lawaih”, the adored pearl, and “Laila-wa-Majnoon”. Persian balladry collapsed into abatement afterwards the abrupt afterlife of Jami. Jame was a abundant accident for Persian poetry.

Hatif was addition able adventurous and actual artist in Persian history. He was the able nephew of Maulana Rumi, who acutely aggressive from him. Added followers of Rumi were Asifi, Fighani (known as “the little Hafiz”, Ahli and the Sufi artist Hilali. Khairati, Qasmimi, Kashi, Shani, Fasihi and Shafai are the acclaimed Persian poets of sixteenth century.

Prominent Poets

Mirza Muhammad Ali Saeb Tabraizi, the next arresting and accomplished artist of seventeenth aeon who advised as best Persian artist afterwards Maulana Jami in Persian history. A ablaze absent and aboriginal Persian artist in Persian history. He was built-in at Isfahan, Iran in 1602 and died in 1677. Saeb aswell abide absorbed with cloister (DARBAR) of Mughal emperor Shah Jehan in India but anon alternate to Iran and abutting the cloister of Shah Abbas II. He formed harder on chronicle of avant-garde balladry with old forms and created a new school.

Azhar is one of his addict in eighteenth century, who was acclaimed for amazing book writing. He wrote Atesh Kadah (the abode of fire-worship), which accommodate biographies of added than eight hundred poets. Azhar aswell wrote a Bassinet and a adventurous epic. He wrote a lot on history and autobiographies of poets and monarchs / rulers.

Saba was the laureate artist of additional Qajar Irani emperor Fateh Ali Shah, who disqualified Iran from June 1779 to October 1834. Saba was the eminent artist of nineteenth aeon in Persian history. He wrote a bassinet and Shahan Shah Namah. Mirza Habib Ullah Shirazi alias Qaani is addition intelligent, outstanding and acclaimed artist of Qajar era in Persian history. He was built-in in 1223 AH in Shiraz and died in Tehran in 1270 AH, who wrote acclaimed book blue-blooded PARESHAN. Qaani aswell knows Arabic, English, French languages forth with Persian language.

Modern Persian Poets or Awakening of Persian Literature

Revival of Persian abstract declared from aboriginal twentieth century. Prince Iraj Mirza has alternate a lot in its revival. Iraj was a abundant and accomplished Persian artist in Persian history. He was built-in in October 1874 in Tabraiz, the basic Azarbaijan (presently east Azarbaijan) and died in March 1926. Iraj Mirza formed for abandon of women. The added arresting Persian poets of twentieth are Adib, Bahar, Lahuti, Shahryar, Aref and the poetess Parvin E’tesami.

The Persian poets of a lot of avant-garde era Nima Yoshij, Raadi, Khanlari, Islami, Gulchin, Ahmed Shamlou, Mehdi Akhavan Sales, Masood Farzad, Sohrab Sepehri, Fereedon, Moshiri, Sadiq Hadayat, Samad Behrangi and Sadiq Choubak. The avant-garde arresting adult poets of avant-garde era are Forough Farrukhzad.